All About Coffee
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds, commonly called beans of the coffee plant. Coffee was first consumed as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the
highlands of Ethiopia. From Ethiopia, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Middle East, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.
The two most commonly grown species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and C. arabica, which are cultivated in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Arabica coffee is by far the most popular variety because of it's smooth taste and aromatic qualities. Basically coffee berries are picked, processed (flesh removed from around the coffee beans), and then they're dried. The seeds are then roasted at
temperatures around 200C (392F), during which the sugars in the bean caramelize, the bean changes color, and the true flavor of that delicious drink we call coffee develops. The beans are generally roasted to a light, medium, or a dark brown color, depending on the desired flavor.
Coffee ingestion on average is about a third that of tap water in most of North America and Europe. In total, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 19982000, and had risen to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010. Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50% of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestl, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee.
There are two main cultivated species of the coffee plant, Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta (from C. canephora), which, compared to arabica, tends to be bitter. For this reason, about three fourths of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica. However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 4050% more caffeine than arabica. For this reason it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost. Other species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan respectively. Most Arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, East Africa/Arabia. Coffee plants are grown on a coffee farm like many other types of produce. Here the coffee plants are planted on a hill to ensure each coffee plant receives plenty of sunshine, and for proper drainage. Robusta coffee beans are grown in West and Central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.
The Thought Life
Have you ever had a song go through your mind over and over again? You hear it playing, and it might even stay with you for days at a time. Thoughts are very much like songs. A thought can come to mind, even a terrible thought, and often it can stick like glue. Not only does it lodge itself in your mind, but it can grow into something larger and ever more disturbing. Someone does you wrong, like cheat you out of something, steal something from you, speak lies about you, harm a member of your family, or whatever kind of wrong may come your way. At that point in time every one of us has the choice of how to react to that particular injustice. Nothing is wrong with immediately reacting with anger. What we do with that anger is what determines its effect on our lives. Each one of us has the choice to accept the injustice and forgive, as difficult as that can be, or we can hold on to the anger and allow it to grow and consume us. The offense is a seed. A seed must be fed in order to grow. If it is not fed, it will not even grow roots. If that seed is fed by anger and resentment, it will grow roots and the plant will continue to grow. In a very short period of time, the root of bitterness will take hold and cast a dark cloud over your life. Bitterness is a root that injects poison into your life. It keeps you from enjoying the blessings in life. What started as a seed planted by one injustice has now sprouted above the surface and is growing like a cancer. It is producing rotten fruit in your life and keeping you from being the productive and compassionate person that God has called you to be. What started out as anger has grown into a stronghold. Also, the root of bitterness, under the surface, continues to grow in size and strength. It is now very difficult to dig up and throw away. What is the solution? It is prevention. When the seed of injustice is sewn in your life, throw it out immediately! You cannot afford to let it remain and grow. It is much easier and less painful to throw out a seed than it is to go back later and dig up the roots of a large oak tree. Forgive now! The person who wronged you does not care what it's doing to you. You alone pay the price of resentment and bitterness. The offender has moved on, and you're still stuck in the mud and muck, saying, you don't know what that person did to me. Get over it! Humbly accept the gift of forgiveness, and allow that forgiveness to operate in every part of your life. God did it 2,000 years ago, when He sent his Son to die for your sins and forgive you.
As God's Word says, Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over will be put into your bosom. For with the same measure that you use, it will be measured back to you. - Luke 6: 37 - 38.
For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh. For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ... - 2 Corinthians 10: 4 - 5
26 Surprising Facts About Coffee
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Who Thinks of This Stuff?
To clean sheer curtains and give them a crisp new look, wash and rinse them as usual, then add a cup of Epsom salts to a sink full of water. Dip the curtains and hang to dry.
If your cordless phone always seems to be running out of juice, the contacts between the phone and the charger may be dirty. Rub a pencil eraser over both contacts to remove grime.
To dry your nail polish fast, spray with cooking spray immediately after polishing. Place pantyhose in the freezer to make them last longer.
Feed and water your plants all at the same time by using the water in which you boiled vegetables or even eggs. Any nutrients in the water will go directly into the soil.
To remove gum from hair, rub a little nail polish remover. After removing the gum, shampoo hair as normal. For dry, peeling lips, brush with a soft toothbrush and warm water to remove dead skin.
To rid yourself of dandruff, rinse your hair with vinegar, let sit on hair for a few minutes, then shampoo as usual. Do this daily and you will soon be flake free!
When the flu's got you, toss some finely chopped mushrooms into that batch of chicken soup. Studies have shown that mushrooms boost the body's immune system.
Large doses of iodine can aggravate acne. When teems have an outbreak, they should avoid heavily salted foods. Low fat diets are good for migraine sufferers.
Spray a bit of perfume on light bulbs to create a light scent in the room. Place fabric softener sheets in dresser drawers to keep clothes smelling just washed fresh.
Candles will last a lot longer if placed in the freezer for at least three hours prior to burning. To remove candle wax from furniture, lay an old towel over top of the wax and iron on the lowest setting.
To clean artificial flowers, pour some salt into a paper bag and add the flowers. Shake vigorously as the sale will absorb all the dust and dirt and leave you flowers looking like new.
To easily remove burnt on food from a skillet, simply add a drop or two of dish soap and enough water to cover the bottom of pan, and bring to a boil on stove top.
Spray your Tupperware with nonstick cooking spray before pouring in tomato based sauces and there won't be any stains. Wrap celery in
aluminum foil when putting in the refrigerator and it will keep for weeks.